University of Novi Sad
Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”
Serbia and Montenegro
1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN SERBIA
2. ABOUT PROJECT IT.1.25.3215.A
2.1. Research subject
2.2. Research content
2.3. Planned research and key results
3. STEPS OF EDUCATIONAL CONTENT AUTOMATIZATION
4. SURVEY OF THE SCORM STANDARD
5. PROBLEMS IN REALIZATION OF
DISTANCE LEARNING MODEL
6. USAGE OF WWW FOR DISTANCE
7. DESCRIPTION E-LEARNING SYSTEM
This paper shows the structure of Project IT.1.25.3215.A. which
name is: “System of distance learning (DL) based on Internet
technology by used multimedia educational software”. Also, this
paper presents some aspect of educational software development
in time space constraint conditions. The steps of rapid application
development (RAD) in the educational domain are suggested. At
end, it is present e-learning
of the subjects Data Base Management Systems /DBMS/.
education, distance learning, Internet, WEB, DBMS, software
EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN SERBIA
full centralization and also the general social conditions in
which the Serbia was during the past decade of XX century,
brought the authoritative management in education system. The
education system in the Republic of Serbia, which at the moment
comprises more than 1.4 million students and about 120, 000
employees (teachers, pedagogues, psychologists, and administrators),
although faced with many problems in all its segments during
the last decade, however, continued to operate, but at a lower
education is not systematically monitored, and the teaching
methods are stagnated. Perhaps this is the most dangerous problem
and the hardest one to eradicate. The current system of education
is structured and organized through the following levels: preschool
education, obligatory education, secondary education, high education
and postgraduate education. Preschool education comprises children
of the age one to seven and is not obligatory. Obligatory education
lasts eight years (class tuition and subject tuition: 4+4 years).
Secondary education is not obligatory and lasts 2, 3 or 4 years.
It is realized in gymnasiums, secondary specialized schools
and secondary art schools. High education is not obligatory
and lasts 3 to 5 years.
current state is characterized by:
inadequate quality of textbooks and other educational
inadequate evaluation of students, reproduction
of knowledge is mostly and widely evaluated that implies campaign
inadequate didactical and methodical education
and professional development of teachers.
in educational system are going to be a long process because
a lot of analysing needs to precede any kind of implementation.
ABOUT PROJECT IT.1.25.3215.A
At Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin” in Zrenjanin one of the
most important Project is IT.1.25.3215.A. “System of distance
learning (DL) based on Internet technology by used multimedia
educational software”. Project duration is 36 months. Project
type is research-development. The Project is confirmed and financed
by Government of Republic Serbia, Ministry of science, technology
and development and participant is Municipal Assembly of Zrenjanin.
Research subjects are:
Creating model of Distance education system based on the Internet
technology in secondary and primary schools and high education
in the Republic of Serbia.
Possibilities of effective learning supported by the Internet
technology and educational software.
Manners of using the Internet technology and educational software
in adults’ education, permanent learning curriculum definition,
education of personnel to use information technology.
Experimental check of the distance education concept application,
implementation strategy concept definition.
Distance education system implementation and its management.
Institutionalization of Distance Education Centre for permanent
education using the Internet technology in the region.
The research would be planned in two directions:
1. Theoretical, the existing distance education
models would be researched, the most appropriate one would be
chosen, and necessary modification would be carried out in order
to adopt the features of the model to our conditions, and the
detailed distance education model would be created.
Regarding the exceptionally speed of development in the world,
during the project permanent coordination with new accomplishments
and relevant changes in our environment would be carried out.
Actualization of the model would be done.
Special knowledge necessary to create Distant Education System
would be defined and algorithm would be developed, necessary
activities to shape the content methodically for Distance Education
System would be identified.
After creating the concept and resource analysis Distance Education
System implementation strategy would be defined, and finally
detailed specification of the system would be done.
2. Experimental that would encompass content
preparation for the given Distance Education model. A Distance
Education System model would be made and tested. On the base
of the advanced defined strategy Distance Education System implementation
and management would be approached.
Planned research and key results
Trends in Distance Education System development
Conditions analysis and appraisal
Solution selection and specification of global solutions
Architecture specification of the Internet based Distance Education
Specification of the Distance Education System
Specification of the Distance Education System content
Coordination with new achievements in the field
Planned research on the project after the 1st year of realization
Detailed implementation of the Distance Education System
Definition and production of a part of content for the Distance
Coordination with new achievements the Distance Education System
Pilot installation of the Distance Education System
System operation analysis
Distance Education System reengineering
Coordination with new achievements in the field
Detailed production of content for the Distance Education System
Coordination with new achievements in the field
Schools and Companies connection to the system
Testing, system efficiency analysis and problem solving
Coordination with new achievements in the field
Key results of the project:
study, technical solution
solution-specification of architecture and system itself
realization of the system
prototype installation at user’s site
software realization of content
finish, region infrastructure connection to it
STEPS OF EDUCATIONAL CONTENT AUTOMATIZATION PROCESS
The chosen factors of the instruction process that are separated
under the conditions of quick application development in the
domain of education are as follows:
educational material (content),
technical conditions (factors),
The total or partial automatization of such a computer
assisted system under time-space limitations can be carried
out in steps. In addition it is necessary to minimize the whole
time of application production with maximum efficiency of produced
program use. In order to decrease total time of application
development from the domain of education it is recommended to:
sue known and little demanding tools,
use of ready-made multimedia resources (readymade
animation, images, sounds...),
use of instruction material from the existing
The quick development of applications in
the domain of education can be carried out in
Definition of educational aims list according to the existing
(not automatized) course.
Existing course analysis.
Aims of the automatized instruction process.
Identification of implementation methods.
Aims list from Step 1
Parallel list for each aim of method of automated
and classical instruction.
Priority tasks listing.
Output of the previous step.
Priority tasks list.
Medial definition of instruction content.
List of priority tasks from the previous step.
Definition of content medial for input list items.
Functional, structural and visual definition of application.
List of content medial from the previous step.
Structurally, functionally and visually defined
screen display of the future application.
SURVEY OF THE SCORM STANDARD ARCHITECTURE
model of distance learning (DL) system is based on SCORM Version
SCORM Standard offers specification of educational content that
has features such as: easy access, interoperable, lasting, and
SCORM standard prescribes the claims that the distance education
system elements must fulfill in order to be SCORM compatible.
The elements of such a system are:
Learning Management System (LMS)
management subsystem, provides API interface (Application Program
Interface) as DOM object (Document Object Model). It must provide
execution of SCO elements (Conformance Label: LMS-RTE1, SCROM
Sharable Content Object (SCO)
shared content objects, are executed via LMS (Conformance Label:
LMS-SCO1, SCORM Standard).
– meta data, are formed via XML document (Conformance
Label: ADLCP-PIFI. Scorm Standard).
subsystem executes the SCO elements automatically or via user’s
interface. The user can manage the application operation via
application menu, content table or software tasters. SCORM LMS
API represents a manner in which SCO communicates with LMS.
SCORM Standard (, 2-5 p.) strictly defines the titles of
API functions, data types, error codes and error messages.
Starting SCO elements from LMS, the SCO element seeks API interface
and executes at least two API functions: LMS Initialize (‘’)
and LMS Finish (‘’), Meta-data are divided into mandatory and
Technical Faculty the model of distance learning (DL) system
based on SCORM Version 1.2 standard includes:
User Management Module,
Student or Pupil Data Module,
Self Assessment Module,
Exams Registration Module,
PROBLEMS IN REALIZATION OF DISTANCE LEARNING MODEL
Fast development of technologies has caused
many changes in process of education itself. Many organizations
put great efforts into researching the possibilities of new
technologies in process of education.
Here are some of the questions that
may appear during the creating of distance learning:
the aims of distance learning program in accordance with the
aims of institutions on which are they carried out?
all the Universities have willingness to adopt distance learning
to motivate the authors to submit their educational materials?
methods should be used in creating distance learning systems?
to present the contents on the Internet?
to direct a user to contents which are important for his education?
to protect copyrights?
to qualify student` successes?
the users got necessary background for distance learning?
hardware platforms are necessary to users?
to realize administrative support?
In brief, the main problems in creating
Distance Learning system are:
quality of instructions and educational contents which can
be found on Internet,
possibilities of a creator, user and administrator.
USAGE OF WWW FOR DISTANCE LEARNING
Teachers can create first pages for their subjects in whom they
can include contents, exercises, reference literature and also
links to information on WWW that could be useful for students.
Links to catalogues and libraries could also be added. Pages
representing the subject of Distance Learning could include
discussion lists, question forms and e-mailing forms.
pages representing Distance Learning should help students to
find necessary information about course, to learn the material
and to get to know with the course’s object. Well-designed Web
pages should urge and help thinking discussions and active participation
of students in Distance Learning process.
The elements that must be included
in Web pages representing the course are:
Basic information about the course and
The communication of the group,
Tasks and tests,
Material for education,
Demonstrations, animations, video, audio,
Internet, on the contrary to “traditional”
documents (mostly of linear and sequential structure), supports
many ways of “moving”-“navigation” through the documents.
using hypertext, the user can approach to document in a traditional-linear
way of reading or, he can, using links inside the document to
browse other sites, pictures, audio files etc. He also always
can turn back to the original document at any time.
of the difficulties with hypertext structure, although it offers
high level of individuality in learning, is users’ disorientation
and overloading with information. The creators of distance Learning
system, ones who deal with the content (it should be teachers),
must be aware of the influence of hypertext structure on learning:
responsibility in directing of learning is much bigger,
extent of controlling of material usage,
possible navigational parts should be predicted in order to
create the material that would direct users on different accesses
necessity for composition of fragment information in order to
reduce information overload,
necessity for multi-medial elements in order to attract students’
attention i.e. to make the content appropriate to the students
with different learning styles,
that students won’t come back on prior address any more, after
they have been directed on the other site by links.
Internet materials could have different
characteristics from the ones of traditional sources of information:
can be presented in different ways,
is easy to manipulate with,
is actual and dynamic,
can originate from a primary source,
is available for reading,
can participate on-line.
While Internet helps individual studying,
different surveys have shown that, thanks to the teachers, this
interaction in real time improves efficiency and completes distance
courses. Students need direction, and that is return information
made by the instructors, or the possibility for communication
with colleagues. Without interactivity and connection with the
rest of the world, Distance Learning becomes shapeless, artificial
and unnatural form of studying. Continuous return information
is very important if the educators want to recognize all needs
and communicative styles of their students. New technologies
and methods of studying have improved the traditional role of
teachers in learning process, but they still have to stimulate
students’ interests related to the topics of studying and to
motivate them in order to fully participate in “Internet classrooms”
Educators should be aware of some basic factors
of learning content while they design models for studying (O’Connor
should be collaborative process which includes graphic designers,
should be declined in order to enable students to read material
and to improve their understanding of it,
is necessary to develop course materials that enable return
information and group studying,
is necessary to use browser limitations, hardware and software
support wisely in order to reduce studying methods,
advantages of outer recourses of information (for example,
be ready to improve studying models in accordance with students’
In realization of Distance Learning
model, which is included in “Distance Learning system based
on Internet technologies with usage of multimedia educational
software” project, provided by Ministry of science, technology
and development of Serbia, following subjects are taken into
and flexible systems,
Base Management Systems.
These subjects are included in basic studying
at Technical Faculty “Mihajlo Pupin”
DESCRIPTION E-LEARNING SYSTEM FOR DBMS
Concerning the tutorials for SQL available:
have decided to help students in complete of the tasks with
E-Learning system for SQL can be used after the installation
of MS Internet Information Services-a, created virtual directory
of web site and copying of e-learning files to virtual directory.
The system starts when Web Browse starter (I.E. MS
Internet Explorer-a) and typing the following into Address
Startup page is then loaded.
the pages in the system are divided on two sides: menu on the
left side, and portal on the right. (Picture 1). All the items
on the page, such as pictures, hyperlinks etc have additional
explanation: in a status line or as a tool tip when they are
focused with the pointer. Below the menu there is a link to
homepage of the faculty, and menu itself contains buttons, which
lead to following:
theoretical description of history, use, standard and syntax
of SQL, Picture1)
of databases with tests and examples of SQL queries.)
around 200 examples of SQL queries taken from the site of
the Faculty. Some of the examples were modified, in order
to adjust to test data, and up to a point queries were modified
too, because of typing mistakes and because of adjustment
to Microsoft Access system for operating databases.)
editor is the place where everyone can practice writing queries
after they have dealt with theory, get to know more about
databases by executing examples using test examples, Picture